Revival Soy Doctor
I have Hypo-thyroid, and have been told not to take soy products.Thank Uou.
Hello Ms. Capece,
Thank you for your question.
Before we get started, please read the following: We do not give medical advice. We provide nutritional information regarding Revival Soy products and information available in the public domain for the uses of soy. We advise you to discuss your personal medical issues with your physician. I hope our information will be helpful to you.
Human studies have not shown a downside to the consumption of soy protein as part of a balanced diet.
Soy is one of the oldest foods known to mankind and has been a staple of traditional Asian diets for thousands of years without any documented adverse effects. In fact, Asians are among the thinnest, longest living people in the world.
You can read about the many documented health benefits of soy at http://www.revivalsoy.com/whysoy/index.html?pid=3000
The FDA has not issued any warnings for soy protein or soy isoflavones. And, the FDA did not find evidence to warn any group of patients regarding soy use when it approved a heart health claim for soy protein in 1999 (i.e. soy protein lowers risk of heart disease). Some suggested to the FDA that soy could cause harm because it contains a chemical similar to the female hormone, estrogen, that might disrupt normal hormone levels. The FDA said the concerns were not supported by conclusive scientific research. While chemicals in soy do exert hormonal effects, the impact is “very limited” and much lower than that of natural or synthetic estrogens.
The FDA, American Heart Association, American Dietetic Association and American Institute for Cancer Research have issued official statements encouraging Americans to eat more soy protein. Major mainstream, peer-reviewed medical journals like New England Journal of Medicine, Journal of the American Medical Association, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology, Circulation, Diabetes, Journal of Urology, Journal of Nephrology and Journal of Clinical Nutrition have published many articles on the health benefits of soy protein.
Will soy protein interfere with any of my prescription medications?
The FDA has not issued any drug interaction warnings for soy protein. However, due to the large number of new prescription medications on the market, we recommend that you simply call your pharmacist or medical doctor if you are taking prescription medications to check for any interactions.
The makers of Synthroid®, a thyroid medication, recommend eating certain foods, including those containing calcium, walnuts and soy, four hours apart from taking Synthroid.
Revival Soy is not a replacement for prescription medication or for your own healthcare, but can be excellent nutritional support for your dietary health plan. We call this SIS™ (which stands for ‘Soy Integrative Support’™). Revival Soy can be integrated into your current health plan to help you achieve better health.
Will soy protein affect my thyroid function?
The FDA has rejected claims that soy adversely affects the thyroid due to lack of evidence. (Reference 1).
Multiple human and animal studies recently published have shown that soy protein does not harm thyroid function (see medical references 2 - 13 below).
It is puzzling why some dairy groups, and their friends, refuse to publish this positive new research about soy and thyroid health. The dairy industry has sued the soy industry over the term “soymilk”, so it appears this is a ‘smear campaign’ against soy solely due to financial greed (soymilk is taking market share away from dairy milk sales).
Please pass this information along to your family, friends and doctor.
1. US FDA says it weighed soy concerns versus benefits. By Lisa Richwine
WASHINGTON (Reuters) - U.S. health regulators weighed concerns that soy
products might be harmful but decided soy's positive effects justified touting its benefits to consumers, a Food and Drug Administration official said Monday.
The agency comment came in response to published remarks from two FDA scientists that eating soy might cause health problems, particularly if given daily to infants in soy milk formulas.
Drs. Daniel Doerge and Daniel Sheehan, the FDA scientists, have spoken to media organizations to warn that infants given soy formula might grow up t develop fertility problems.
They also worry that eating soy regularly might increase the risk of breast cancer in women and brain damage in men. Their most recent comments were published in Britain's Observer newspaper Sunday.
FDA officials considered the scientists' views and those of other critics before announcing last October that they would permit manufacturers to advertise that eating soy could help adults cut their risk of heart disease.
“We are well aware of the concerns, but we did balance those concerns with the other positive effects,” an FDA official said in an interview Monday.
The FDA reviewed scientific studies on soy before concluding that adults who consume 25 grams of soy protein per day could see a “significant” lowering of cholesterol, which would lower their risk of heart disease. High cholesterol is a major risk factor for heart disease, the leading killer of
Critics told the FDA soy could cause harm because it contains a chemical similar to the female hormone, estrogen,that might disrupt normal hormone levels and impair development. Some warned about the possibility of cancer, impaired fertility or thyroid problems.
The FDA said the concerns were not supported by conclusive scientific research. While chemicals in soy do exert hormonal effects, the impact is “very limited” and much lower than that of natural or synthetic estrogens, the FDA said when it announced it would permit the soy health claim.
Concerns that soy infant formula could be harmful were ''speculative'' pending the outcome of definitive research, the agency said.
Critics who worry about the effects of soy infant formula recommend that it be used only when no alternatives exist.
A farmer-supported group said Monday concerns about soy's health effects were not new but were not widely held.
“The overwhelming body of published peer-reviewed scientific evidence shows soy has numerous health benefits,” said Michael Orso, a spokesman for the United Soybean Board.
Copyright 2000 Reuters Limited. All rights reserved.
2. SOY ISOFLAVONES DO NOT HAVE AN ANTI-THYROID EFFECT IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN OVER 64 YEARS OF AGE. B. Bruce. G. A. Spiller and L. Holloway. Health Research and Studies Center, Los Altos, CA 94022 and Palo Alto V.A. Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA 94034. Experimental Biology 2000, San Diego, CA April 15-18, 2000.
Studies in animals, in vitro, and infants using soy-based formulas have suggested a possible anti-thyroid effect of soy. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect on thyroid function of a concentrate supplying 90 mg of soy isoflavones in 38 postmenopausal women, aged 64-83 years old, not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured before supplementation (BS) and after 90 and 180 days.
These results suggest that there appears to be no anti-thyroid effect of soy isoflavones over six months in postmenopausal women not on HRT. Supported by a grant from Archer Daniels Midland Company.
3. Soy isoflavones exert modest hormonal effects in premenopausal women. Duncan AM, Merz BE, Xu X, Nagel TC, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS.
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Jan;84(1):192-7.
Soy isoflavones are hypothesized to be responsible for changes in hormone action associated with reduced breast cancer risk. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of isoflavone consumption in 14 premenopausal women. Isoflavones were consumed in soy protein powders and provided relative to body weight (control diet, 10 +/- 1.1; low isoflavone diet, 64 +/- 9.2; high isoflavone diet, 128 +/- 16 mg/day) for three menstrual cycles plus 9 days in a randomized cross-over design. During the last 6 weeks of each diet period, plasma was collected every other day for analysis of estrogens, progesterone, LH, and FSH. Diet effects were assessed during each of four distinctly defined menstrual cycle phases. Plasma from the early follicular phase was analyzed for androgens, cortisol, thyroid hormones, insulin, PRL, and sex hormone-binding globulin. The low isoflavone diet decreased LH (P = 0.009) and FSH (P = 0.04) levels during the periovulatory phase. The high isoflavone diet decreased free T3 (P = 0.02) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (P = 0.02) levels during the early follicular phase and estrone levels during the midfollicular phase (P = 0.02). No other significant changes were observed in hormone concentrations or in the length of the menstrual cycle, follicular phase, or luteal phase. Endometrial biopsies performed in the luteal phase of cycle 3 of each diet period revealed no effect of isoflavone consumption on histological dating. These data suggest that effects on plasma hormones and the menstrual cycle are not likely to be the primary mechanisms by which isoflavones may prevent cancer in premenopausal women.
4. Modest hormonal effects of soy isoflavones in postmenopausal women. Duncan AM, Underhill KE, Xu X, Lavalleur J, Phipps WR, Kurzer MS.
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 1999 Oct;84(10):3479-84
Soy isoflavones have been hypothesized to exert hormonal effects in postmenopausal women. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effects of three soy powders containing different levels of isoflavones in 18 postmenopausal women. Isoflavones were consumed relative to bodyweight [control: 0.11 +/- 0.01; low isoflavone (low-iso): 1.00 +/- 0.01; high isoflavone (high-iso): 2.00 +/- 0.02 mg/kg/day] for 93 days each in a randomized crossover design. Blood was collected on day 1 of the study (baseline) and days 36-38, 64-66, and 92-94 of each diet period, for analysis of estrogens, androgens, gonadotropins, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), prolactin, insulin, cortisol, and thyroid hormones. Vaginal cytology specimens were obtained at baseline and at the end of each diet period, and endometrial biopsies were performed at baseline and at the end of the high-iso diet period, to provide additional measures of estrogen action. Overall, compared with the control diet, the effects of the low-iso and high-iso diets were modest in degree. The high-iso diet resulted in a small but significant decrease in estrone-sulfate (E1-S), a trend toward lower estradiol (E2) and estrone (E1), and a small but significant increase in SHBG. For the other hormones, the few significant changes noted were also small and probably not of physiological importance. There were no significant effects of the low-iso or high-iso diets on vaginal cytology or endometrial biopsy results. These data suggest that effects of isoflavones on plasma hormones per se are not significant mechanisms by which soy consumption may exert estrogen-like effects in postmenopausal women. These data also show that neither isoflavones nor soy exert clinically important estrogenic effects on vaginal epithelium or endometrium.
5. J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):309-16. Isoflavone supplements do not affect thyroid function in iodine-replete postmenopausal women. Bruce B, Messina M, Spiller GA. Division of Immunology & Rheumatology, Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto.
Despite the safety review conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the process of awarding a health claim for the cholesterol-lowering properties of soy protein, concerns about the possible goitrogenic effects of soybean isoflavones persist. Concerns are based primarily on in vitro research, animal studies, and older reports of goiter in infants fed soy formula not fortified with iodine. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effect on thyroid function of a daily supplement containing 90 mg (aglycone weight) of total isoflavones/day versus placebo in 38 postmenopausal women, 64-83 years old, not on hormone replacement therapy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroxine (T4), and triiodothyronine (T3) were measured at baseline and after 90 and 180 days. In the supplement group, at baseline and 6 months, TSH (micro U/ml), T4 (nM), and T3 (nM) levels (mean +/- SE) were 3.00 +/- 0.44, 149.00 +/- 5.04, and 1.53 +/- 0.13, respectively, and 3.49 +/- 0.52, 154.52 +/- 2.09, and 1.78 +/- 0.12, respectively. In the control group, levels at baseline and at 6 months were 3.35 +/- 0.51, 145.39 +/- 6.69, and 1.55 +/- 0.18, respectively, and 3.63 +/- 0.57, 153.77 +/- 6.64, and 1.75 +/- 0.10, respectively. Intragroup differences for all three measures were statistically indistinguishable at 6 months, and levels were similar between the isoflavone supplement and placebo groups at each measurement. These results indicate that in this group of healthy iodine-replete subjects, soy isoflavones do not adversely affect thyroid function.
6. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Jan;75(1):145-53. Effect of soy protein on endogenous hormones in postmenopausal women. Persky VW, Turyk ME, Wang L, Freels S, Chatterton R Jr, Barnes S, Erdman J Jr, Sepkovic DW, Bradlow HL, Potter S.Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, the School of Public Health, the University of Illinois at Chicago, USA.
BACKGROUND: The long-term clinical effects of soy protein containing various concentrations of isoflavones on endogenous hormones are unknown. OBJECTIVE: We examined the effects of ingestion of soy protein containing various concentrations of isoflavones on hormone values in postmenopausal women. DESIGN: Seventy-three hypercholesterolemic, free-living, postmenopausal women participated in a 6-mo double-blind trial in which 40 g protein as part of a National Cholesterol Education Program Step I diet was provided as casein from nonfat dry milk (control), isolated soy protein (ISP) containing 56 mg isoflavones (ISP56), or ISP containing 90 mg isoflavones (ISP90). Endogenous hormone concentrations were measured at baseline and at 3 and 6 mo. RESULTS: The concentration of thyroxine and the free thyroxine index were higher in the ISP56 group, and the concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone was higher in the ISP90 group than in the control group at 3 and 6 mo (P < 0.05). Triiodothyronine was significantly higher in the ISP90 group only at 6 mo. Thyroxine, free thyroxine index, and thyroid-stimulating hormone at 6 mo were inversely associated with measures of baseline estrogenicity. No significant differences were found for endogenous estrogens, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, insulin, glucagon, or follicle-stimulating hormone after baseline hormone values were controlled for. CONCLUSIONS: This study does not provide evidence that long-term ingestion of soy protein alters steroid hormone values, but it suggests that soy protein may have small effects on thyroid hormone values that are unlikely to be clinically important. The thyroid effects are, however, consistent with previous findings in animals and highlight the need for future research investigating possible mechanisms of action.
7. Biofactors. 2000;12(1-4):233-41. Effects of isoflavone supplement on healthy women. Watanabe S, Terashima K, Sato Y, Arai S, Eboshida A. Department of Nutritional Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Japan.
Effects of the isoflavone supplement on hormonal states in young premenopausal women were studied by cross-over study design. Administration of 20 mg or 40 mg isoflavones (IF) by tablets, of which 1 g contained 43.5 mg daidzein, 6.0 mg genistein, 24.0 mg glycitein, to 40 young female students for one month caused a prolonged menstruation in 60% of young women, shortened menstruation in 20% of young women, 17% remained unchanged and 3% became irregular. Larger dose tended to elongate more, but 17beta-estradiol levels in both follicular and luteal phages were not different between 20 mg and 40 mg isoflavone intake. Equor excreters tended to show low plasma progesteron level in the luteal phase. Detailed hormonal analysis on 3 of students by a cross over study design showed decreased level of 17beta-estradiol throughout the menstruation cycle. SHBG significantly increased about 10% in all three. DEAS, androstendione, and testosterone showed different responses according to the follicular or luteal phase. T3 and T4 increased as a result of isoflavone tablet administration in the follicular phase, but it decreased in the luteal phase. These changes suggest that isoflavones influence not only estrogen receptor-related functions but the hypothalamo-hypophysis-gonadal axis.
8. Ham, J.O., Chapman, K.M., Essex-Sorlie, D., Bakhit, R.M., Prabhudesai, M., Winter, L., Erdman, J.W. & Potter, S.M. (1993). Endocrinological response to soy protein and fiber in mildly hypercholesterlemic men. Nutr Res, 13, 873-884.
In a four-week feeding study with 17 hypercholesterolemic men, Ham et al (1993) found that daily intake of 50 g soy protein for four weeks resulted in an increase in plasma T4, no change in T3, and a decrease in TSH compared with the baselines.
9. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Vol. 12, 144-150, February 2003
© 2003 American Association for Cancer Research Why Are Thyroid Cancer Rates So High in Southeast Asian Women Living in the United States? The Bay Area Thyroid Cancer Study1. Tmirah Haselkorn, Susan L. Stewart and Pamela L. Horn-Ross2. Northern California Cancer Center, Union City, California 94587 [T. H., S. L. S., P. L. H-R.], and Division of Epidemiology, Department of Health Research and Policy, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 [T. H.]
The purpose of this study is to understand why thyroid cancer incidence rates are higher among Southeast Asian (SA) women living in the United States than among other United States women. A multiethnic population-based, case-control study of thyroid cancer among women ages 20-74 was conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. Cases diagnosed between 1992 and 1998 were identified through the area's population-based cancer registry. Controls were identified using random digit dialing and matched to cases on age and ethnicity. Asian women were classified as SA (n = 214) or Northern Asian (n = 196) based on self-reported ethnicity. Relative attributable risks, by age group (<50 and 50+), were calculated to assess what proportion of the difference in incidence rates between these populations could be attributed to the prevalence of specific thyroid cancer risk factors, assuming common relative risks across ethnic groups. Among younger women, a history of goiter or thyroid nodules and lower consumption of isoflavones from soy-based foods account for 66% of the difference in incidence between SA and Northern Asian women. Among older women, these factors, along with recent migration, accounted for 95% of the difference between these groups. When comparing SA with Caucasian women, goiter/nodules and lower consumption of carotenoids explained 67% of the difference in incidence in younger women, whereas goiter/nodules and socioeconomic variables explained 81% of the difference in incidence in older women. A greater prevalence of goiter and thyroid nodules accounts for a substantial portion of the higher thyroid cancer incidence rates among SA women. Dietary patterns also contribute to the rate differences.
10. Prev. 2002 Jan;11(1):43-9. Phytoestrogens and thyroid cancer risk: the San Francisco Bay Area thyroid cancer study. Horn-Ross PL, Hoggatt KJ, Lee MM. Northern California Cancer Center, 32960 Alvarado-Niles Road, Suite 600, Union City, CA 94587, USA.
Epidemiological and pathological data suggest that thyroid cancer may well be an estrogen-dependent disease. The relationship between thyroid cancer risk and dietary phytoestrogens, which can have both estrogenic and antiestrogenic properties, has not been previously studied. We present data from a multiethnic population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area. Of 817 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 1998 (1992 and 1998 for Asian women), 608 (74%) were interviewed. Of 793 controls identified through random-digit dialing, 558 (70%) were interviewed. Phytoestrogen consumption was assessed via a food-frequency questionnaire and a newly developed nutrient database. The consumption of traditional and nontraditional soy-based foods and alfalfa sprouts were associated with reduced risk of thyroid cancer. Consumption of "western" foods with added soy flour or soy protein did not affect risk. Of the seven specific phytoestrogenic compounds examined, the isoflavones, daidzein and genistein [odds ratio (OR), 0.70; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.44-1.1; and OR, 0.65, 95% CI, 0.41-1.0, for the highest versus lowest quintile of daidzein and genistein, respectively] and the lignan, secoisolariciresinol (OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.35-0.89, for the highest versus lowest quintile) were most strongly associated with risk reduction. Findings were similar for white and Asian women and for pre- and postmenopausal women. Our findings suggest that thyroid cancer prevention via dietary modification of soy and/or phytoestrogen intake in other forms may be possible but warrants further research at this time.
11. Phytoestrogens and Thyroid Cancer Risk in Women. Pamela L. Horn-Ross, K. J. Hoggatt and Marion Lee. Northern California Cancer Center, Union City, CA. Fourth International Symposium on the Role of Soy in Preventing and Treating Chronic Disease, Nov. 4-7, 2001. San Diego, California.
BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence is three times higher in women than in men. It is one of the five most common types of cancer occurring in young women and in recent Asian immigrants. Female hormones and changeable lifestyle factors (e.g., dietary intake) may be important in thyroid carcinogenesis. METHODS: A population-based case-control study of thyroid cancer in women, 20-74 years old, was conducted in the San Francisco Bay area. Of 817 cases, diagnosed in 1995-1998 (1992-1998 for Asian women), and identified through the cancer registry, 608 (74%) were interviewed. Controls were identified through random-digit dialing and frequency-matched to cases on age and ethnicity. Of 793 eligible controls, 558 (70%) were interviewed. Interviews were conducted in six languages. Phytoestrogen consumption was assessed by a food frequency questionnaire and quantified from a recently developed database. RESULTS: All three classes of phytoestrogens examined (isoflavones, coumestans and lignans) and four of the seven specific compounds were associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer. The odds ratio for the highest quintile of total phytoestrogen consumption compared with the lowest was 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.41-0.98). Risk reduction was apparent for both white and Asian women. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the association between soybean consumption and goiter, a major risk factor for thyroid cancer, soy-based foods and phytoestrogens in particular seem to be associated with a reduced risk of thyroid cancer in women. Possible mechanisms include antioxidant effects, direct effects on endogenous estrogen and thyroid hormone levels, or antiestrogenic effects resulting from competitive binding to the estrogen receptor.
12. NOTE: This study showed no effect of soy on TBG (thyroid-binding globulin).
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 79, No. 3, 396-401, March 2004
© 2004 American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dietary soy containing phytoestrogens does not have detectable estrogenic effects on hepatic protein synthesis in postmenopausal women1,2,3. Helena J Teede, Fabien S Dalais and Barry P McGrath. 1 From the Vascular Research Group, Department of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Australia (HJT and BPM), and the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine, Monash University, The Alfred Hospital, Prahran, Australia (FSD).
Background: Dietary phytoestrogens are ligands for the estrogen receptor and may mimic estrogenic effects in vivo.
Objective: To assess the biological activity of isoflavone phytoestrogens, we analyzed the effect of dietary soy isoflavone supplementation on in vivo bioassays of estrogenicity.
Design: Fifty healthy postmenopausal women aged 50-75 y participated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in which they received either soy protein isolate (40 g soy protein, 118 mg isoflavones) or casein placebo. Measurements were made at baseline and at 3 mo. Urinary isoflavone excretion was measured to reflect compliance. The bioassays of estrogenicity included measurement of hepatic proteins and gonadotropin concentrations.
Results: Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the soy and placebo groups. Urinary isoflavone excretion increased in the soy group and at the end of 3 mo was higher in the soy group than in the placebo group. In plasma samples from both groups, C-reactive protein increased significantly over the 3-mo treatment period, whereas sex hormone-binding globulin and thyroid-binding globulin decreased significantly. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in hepatic protein synthesis (change over 3 mo ± SEM in the soy and placebo groups, respectively): C-reactive protein, 0.42 ± 0.2 and 0.48 ± 0.2 U/mL; sex hormone-binding globulin, -6.9 ± 1.5 and -10.0 ± 2.1 µg/mL; thyroid-binding globulin, -16 ± 8 and -26 ± 7 nmol/L. Furthermore, gonadotropin and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate concentrations did not change significantly in either group.
Conclusions: In healthy postmenopausal women, dietary soy isoflavones do not affect in vivo biological indicators of estrogenicity, including hepatic protein synthesis and gonadotropin concentrations. This suggests that soy isoflavones have little biologically relevant estrogenic effect in vivo in postmenopausal women.
13. NOTE: Dr. Doerge is the scientist that wanted the FDA to add an 'anti-thyroid' warning to the 1999 soy-heart health claim, however his concerns were dismissed by the FDA. His concerns were based on an in vitro study (i.e. a small study done in a culture dish, not in humans, that suggested soy isoflavones inhibited thyroid enzymes). However, his subsequent study conduced in rats (below) disproved his earlier assertions that soy harmed the thyroid. This subsequent study showed that soy isoflavones didn’t have an impact on thyroid function. Anti-soy dairy groups have refused to publish this new data.
Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2000 Nov 1;168(3):244-52. Dietary genistein inactivates rat thyroid peroxidase in vivo without an apparent hypothyroid effect. Chang HC, Doerge DR. Division of Biochemical Toxicology, Jefferson, Arkansas 72079, USA.
Biological effects of genistein are currently under investigation by the National Toxicology Program because of widespread and increasing soy consumption by humans and evidence for modulation of endocrine function. Rats were exposed to genistein aglycone in soy-free feed fortified at 0, 5, 100, and 500 ppm starting in utero through 20 weeks. Thyroid glands and serum were analyzed for total genistein (aglycone + conjugates) using HPLC with electrospray mass spectrometric detection. Microsomal thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity was measured spectrophotometrically. The total genistein content in rat serum was as high as 8 microM, and significant dose-dependent increases of genistein in thyroid tissue up to 1 pmol/mg were found in male and female rats. The activity of TPO in male and female rats was found to be reduced by up to 80% in a dose-dependent manner. Male and female rats consuming a standard soy-based rodent diet (NIH 31) had TPO activity approximately 50% lower than rats consuming a soy-free diet and this loss was commensurate with measured serum levels of isoflavones. Suicide inactivation of rat, porcine, and human TPO was observed in vitro at concentrations of genistein aglycone comparable to those measured in rat thyroids. Thyroid hormone levels (T3, T4, TSH) in serum, thyroid weights, and histopathology showed no differences between treated and untreated groups. These findings suggest that, even though substantial amounts of TPO activity are lost concomitant to soy isoflavone consumption by normal rats, the remaining enzymatic activity is sufficient to maintain thyroid homeostasis in the absence of additional perturbations.
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